Adipose Tissue Was Unexpectedly Discovered To have Stress-Resistant Stem Cells

Los Angeles, CA (Scicasts) –There has been a new primitive, stress-resistant human pluripotent stem cells population that have been isolated by the researchers from the UCLA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Such were seen to be derived directly and easily from fat tissue. On top of that, without genetic modification they were able to have it differentiated into cell type in the human body virtually.

It was through a “scientific accident” discovery that the multi-lineage stress-enduring stem cells coming from adipose tissue (Muse-AT) were made known. It was during that experiment when all of the stem cells, except the Muse-AT cells were killed due to a failed piece of equipment in the laboratory.

According to Gregorio Chazenbalk, an associate researcher with UCLA Obstetrics and Gynecolgy and also UCLA research team’s senior author, that not only are Muse-AT cells can survive sever stress, they might even be activated by it.

The amazing fact seen and noted about these pluripotent cells is that of their special functions and capacity to have tissue regenerated following their “awakening” after having transplanted back into the body. These were revealed during the examination of their genetic characteristics. During liposuction, these cells are isolated from the removed fat tissue, which shows a lot of embryonic stem-cell markers. On top of that is they were able to differentiate into muscle, fat, bone, cardiac, neuronal and liver cells.

embryonic stem cell stroke

Chazenbalk said that “This population of cells lies dormant in the fat tissue until it is subjected to very harsh conditions,” adding that “These cells can survive in conditions in which usually only cancer cells can live.”

And as he quoted “Upon further investigation and clinical trials, these cells could prove a revolutionary treatment option for numerous diseases, including heart disease and stroke and for tissue damage and neural regeneration.”

In June 5, the peer-viewed journal PLOS ONE have published the two-year study results.

There are various embryonic stem cell markers showcased by these pluripotent cells which were isolated from fat tissue extracted during liposuction.  They too were able to differentiate into neuronal and liver cells, muscle, bone, fat and cardiac.

According to the researchers, cell sorter or other specialized high-tech devices aren’t necessary in having Muse-AT cells isolated and purified. These cells have the capability of growing in either suspension, forming cell spheres, or as adherent cells. And same from the human embryonic derived stem cells, these forming cell aggregates the same manner.

We have been able to isolate these cells using a simple and efficient method that takes about six hours from the time the fat tissue is harvested. This research offers a new and exciting source of fat stem cells with pluripotent characteristics as well as a new method for quickly isolating them. These cells also appear to be more primitive than the average fat stem cells, making them potentially superior sources for regenerative medicine.” Said Chazenbalk, a scientist with the Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Researc at UCLA.

Both of the embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (skin cells turned into embryonic-like cells) exhibit an uncontrolled capacity for differentiation and proliferation. Such process of these two main sources of pluripotent cells will lead to tumors or unwanted teratomas formation. But Chazenbalk claimed that there has been a little progress seen in having this defect resolved.

It was revealed in the research that Muse cells, which were derived from bone marrow and skin (not fat) and were originally discovered by a research group at Tokohu University in Japan, animal models’ Muse cells didn’t produce teratomas. There is a need to make further research on the Muse-AT cells kept isolated at UCLA. This is to determine whenever teratomas production is being avoided by that cell population.

Chazenbalk even said that the Muse-AT cells could be the key to better understanding the cancer cells, the only other cells that are known to have stress resistance characteristic on top of providing a potential source of cells for regenerative medicine.

And to determine the cells growth and function in the body as well as its future clinical use, Chazenbalk and his team will regenerate damaged or dysfunctional tissue through the use of Muse-AT cells in animal models.

According to the study, “Because lipoaspiration is a safe and non-invasive procedure and Muse-AT cell isolation requires a simple yet highly efficient purification technique, Muse-AT cells could provide an ideal source of pluripotent-like stem cells. Muse-AT cells have the potential to make a critical impact on the field of regenerative medicine.”

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064752

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